The load flow problem statement
Concept of slack bus: Gauss or Gauss-siedel iteration using Y bus: Newton-Raphson and fast decoupled load flow: Comparison between algorithms; Adjustment of network operating conditions: Operational power flow program organization and description. Data collection for the load flow analysis. Optimal power flow problem and solution methods: Description of specific OPF formulation: Static security assessment: Contingency ranking and evaluation: Description of specific algorithms: Case studies using software tools.
Voltage Stability Analysis
Incidents of voltage collapse and factors leading to them: Solutions adopted by utilities to avoid such incidents: Methods of detecting, evaluating static voltage stability by means of indices: The PV curves: Minimum singular values: L indices: C indices: Case studies using software tools.
Transient Stability Studies
Application to multimachine system with controllers: Modeling of SVCs, Induction motors, HVDC links, under frequency relays, Distance relays etc. Application to the following studies
Determination of critical clearing time for different fault locations : Examination of stability for different types of single or multiple disturbances such as faults, load rejection/recovery, motor starting, line/transformer switching, loss of generation; Designing under frequency and undervoltage based load shedding schemes;Study of load rejection, dynamic over voltage phenomenon;Outage of HVDC links and stability assessment.
Dynamic Stability Studies
Concepts and application areas: Concept of damping and synchronizing torque: Component modeling such as generator, motor, AVR, Prime mover-Governor: Application of PSS(Power system stabilizer): PSS tuning and its effect on dynamic and transient stability of the system: Effect of system loading, transmission strength, excitation system parameters, PSS etc. Case studies using software tools.
Power System Protection
Current Transformer: Introduction: Current Transformer error, CT winding arrangements: Secondary winding impedance, Secondary current rating, Open circuit secondary voltage, transient response, Harmonics, Test windings.
Potential transformer: Errors, secondary load protection, Transient performance, CVT, CVT transients, Ferro resonance, Cascade voltage transformers
Distribution: Feeder protection: Introduction, principles of time-current grading: IDMT overcurrent relays: Inverse overcurrent relays: Extremely inverse and voltage controlled over current relays: Directional overcurrent relays: Unit protection, Primary and backup relays and their grading.
Transformer protection: Inrush phenomenon, Internal faults, External system faults, Surge protection, Overcurrent protection, Circulating current protection, Differential protection with harmonic restraint, Duo-Bias differential transformer protection, Gas and oil actuated (Buchholz) relay, Numerical / micro controller based relays.
Introduction, Relaying quantities, Switched and non-switched distance relays, directional wave detect relay, Impedance relays, Auto reclosing, Single pole opening, Pilot relaying schemes, Power swing phenomenon, Out of step tripping & blocking relays.
Introduction, Aspects of Generator protection, Internal faults, Abnormal conditions, Generator earthing, Stator-ground fault protection, Impact of faulty synchronization and slow clearance of closeup 3 phase faults, Generator differential protection, Generator backup impedance relay, Interlock overcurrent relay, Reverse power relay, Over voltage relay (Alarm & trip), Generator overall differential protection, Generator transformer overfluxing relay detection, Line backup impedance relay, Outof- step operation of generators, Generator pole slipping relay, Generator loss of excitation, Generator negative sequence current, Generator under-frequency, Rotor earth fault protection, Protection against inadvertent energisation.
Introduction, Busbar faults, Causes of bus faults, Protection requirements, Effect of CT saturation, Stability with saturated CT’s, Circulating current busbar protection stabilizing on an external fault.Circulating current busbar protection operating on an internal fault, Circulating current protection for double busbars, Circulating current duplicate line of defense busbar protection.
Introduction, Solution methodology, modeling power system components, Network representation, Branches, Switches, Sources,Linear elements, Non-linear elements, time varying elements, solution with compensation methods, Time controlled switch, Voltage dependent switch, Piecewise linear resistance or surge arrester, Piecewise linear inductance,Voltage and Current sources, Current controlled DC voltage source, Initial conditions, Transformer representation, Saturation effects, Switching surges, Fault transients, Dynamic overvoltages, Ferro resonance etc. Case studies using software tools.
Distribution System Analysis &Improvement
Associated problems and considerations Case studies using software tools.
Reliability Studies of Composite Power Systems
Basic probability and statistics. Load point indices calculation and evaluation of reliability in conjunction with optimal power flows. Case studies using software tools.
Harmonic Analysis & Filter Design
Sources of harmonics and their effect on system operation. Harmonic distortion factors & IEEE standards. Series and parallel resonance impedance plots. Types of filters, filter capacitor sizing. Evaluation of filter performance. Case studies using software tools.
Energy Management Concepts Central operation and control of power systems, Energy control center functions and organization, Digital computer organization. SCADA functions and implementation. Remote Terminal Units, MMI, communication, database design, report generation, event logging.
EMS functions. Automatic Generation Control (AGC), Operation without AGC, Parallel operation of generators.